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  • The immune landscape of high-grade brain tumor after treatment with immune checkpoint blockade. Jang Hyun Park+, In Kang+, Heung Kyu Lee. Frontiers in Immunology, (+ equally contributed)  December 14, 2022.

  • Obesity enhances antiviral immunity in the genital mucosa through a microbiota-mediated effect on γδ T cells. Jang Hyun Park, In Kang, Hyeon Cheol Kim, Younghoon Lee, Sung Ki Lee, Heung Kyu Lee*. Cell Reports. Volume 41, Issue 6, 8 November 2022,  111594

  • Human allogenic γδ T cells kill patient-derived glioblastoma cells expressing high levels of DNAM-1 ligands. Haeyoun Choi, Yunkyung Lee, Soo A Park, Ji Hyeon Lee, Junseong Park, Jang Hyun Park, Heung Kyu Lee, Tai-Gyu Kim, Sin-Soo Jeun & Stephen Ahn. Oncoimmunology,  Volume 11, 2138152, 30 Oct. 2022 

  • Blood monocyte-derived CD169+ macrophages contribute to antitumor immunity against glioblastoma. Hyun-Jin Kim, Jang Hyun Park, Hyeon Cheol Kim, Chae Won Kim, In Kang, Heung Kyu Lee*. Nature Communications. 13, 6211 (2022).

  • Protocol to analyze antitumor immunity of orthotopic injection and spontaneous murine high-grad glioma models using flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing. Jang Hyun Park+, Chae Won Kim+, Hyun-Jin Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Jeong Ho Lee, Heung Kyu Lee*. (+ equally contributed) STAR Protocols. 16 September 2022

  • Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Hot and Cold Tumors. Byeong Hoon Kang, Heung Kyu Lee*, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 30 June 2022

  • Host and Microbiome Interplay Shapes the Vaginal Microenvironment.  Myoung-Seung Kwon, Heung Kyu Lee*,  Frontiers in Immunology. 28 June 2022

  • A Microbiota-Dependent Subset of Skin Macrophages Protects Against Cutaneous Bacterial Infection. Young Joon Park, Byeong Hoon Kang, Hyun-Jin Kim, Ji Eun Oh and Heung Kyu Lee*, Frontiers in Immunology. 09 June 2022

  • γδ T Cells in Brain Homeostasis and Diseases. Jang Hyun Park+, In Kang+, Heung Kyu Lee*. (+ equally contributed) Frontiers in Immunology. 26 May 2022

  • The role of autophagy in the function of CD4+ T cells and the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Jiung Jeong+, Young Joon Choi+, Heung Kyu Lee*. (+ equally contributed) Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2022. March.

  • Current Understanding of Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Multiforme and Its Response to Immunotherapy. Jang Hyun Park, Heung Kyu Lee*. Cancers 2022, 14, 1176.

  • Potential Role of the Gut Microbiome In Colorectal Cancer Progression. Jaeho Kim, Heung Kyu Lee*.  Frontiers in Immunology. 2022 Jan.


  • The Role of CD4+ T cells and Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of AsthmaJiung Jeong, Heung Kyu Lee*. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021 Oct 22(21), 11822;

  • Current Understanding of the Innate Conrol of Toll-Like Receptors in Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Hi Eun Jung, Heung Kyu Lee*. Viruses 2021, 13, 2132.

  • Monocytes Contribute to IFN-β Production via the MyD88-Dependent Pathway and Cytotoxic T-Cell Responses against Mucosal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Tae Hoon Kim(1), Chae Won Kim(1), Dong Sun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Heung Kyu Lee*. (1) equally contributed. Immune Network. 2021 Aug 10;21(4)e27. (1) co-first authors

  • Immune Networks in Health and Disease. Heung Kyu Lee, Doo-Hyun Chung. Molecules and Cells. 2021. May 31;44(5):279-280.

  • Delivery Routes for COVID-19 Vaccines. Jang Hyun Park, Heung Kyu Lee*. Vaccines. 2021 May 19. 9(5), 524.

  • The Role of Gut Microbiota in Modulating Tumor Growth and Anticancer Agent Efficacy. Jaeho Kim, Heung Kyu Lee*. Molecules and Cells. 2021 Apr 23.

  • Function of γδ T cells in tumor immunology and their application to cancer therapy. Jang Hyun Park, Heung Kyu Lee*. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 2021 Mar 12. 53(3):318-327.

  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition). Daniel J Klionsky, Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz, Sara Abdelfatah, Mahmoud Abdellatif, Asghar Abdoli,...,Heung Kyu Lee,..., Chun-Kit Tong. Autophagy. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

  • Single Cell Transcriptomic Re-analysis of Immune Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids Reveals the Correlation of B cell Characteristics and Disease Severity of Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Chae Won Kim, Ji Eun Oh*, Heung Kyu Lee*. Immune Network. 2021 Feb;21(1):e10

  • Tumor hypoxia represses γδ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity against brain tumors. Jang Hyun Park, Hyun-Jin Kim, Chae Won Kim, Hyeon Cheol Kim, Yujin Jung, Hyun-Soo Lee, Yunah Lee, Young Seok Ju, Ji Eun Oh, Sung-Hong Park, Jeong Ho Lee, Sung Ki Lee, Heung Kyu Lee*. Nature Immunology. 2021 Feb 11,   Online ahead of printIntroduced in News & Views, Antitumor T cells need oxygen to function. Nature Immunology 2021 Feb 11.

  • The role of dendritic cells in tumor microenvironments and their uses as therapeutic targets. Chae Won Kim, Kyun Do Kim*, Heung Kyu Lee*. BMB Reports. 2021 Jan;54(1):31-43


  • Re-analysis of single cell transcriptome reveals that the NR3C1-CXCL8-neutrophil axis determines the severity of COVID-19. Park JH, Lee HK*. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020. August 7. Online ahead of print

  • Autophagic protein ATG5 controls anti-viral immunity via glycolytic reprogramming of dendritic cells against respiratory syncytial virus infection. Oh DS(1), Park JH(1), Kim HJ, Lee HK*.  Autophagy. 2020 August 20. Online ahead of print. (1) co-first author

  • Vaccines against Genital Herpes: Where Are We? Kim HC, Lee HK*. Vaccines. 2020 July 27;8(3):E420.

  • Immunophenotyping of COVID-19 and influenza highlights the role of type I interferons in development of severe COVID-19. Lee JS, Park S, Jeong HW, Ahn JY, Choi SJ, Lee H, Choi B, Nam SK, Sa M, Kwon JS, Jeong SJ, Lee HK, Park SH, Park SH, Choi JY, Kim SH, Jung I, Shin EC. Science Immunology. 2020 July 10;5(49):eabd1554.

  • Host Protective Immune Responses against Influenza A Virus Infection. Jung HE, Lee HK*. Viruses. 2020;12(5):E504. Published 2020 May 3.

  • Flagellin-Stimulated Production of Interferon-β Promotes Anti-Flagellin IgG2c and IgA Responses. Kang W, Park A, Huh JW, You GH, Jung DJ, Song M, Lee HK, Kim YM*. Molecules and Cells. 2020 Mar.

  • Multivalent DNA vaccine protects against genital herpes by T-cell immune induction in vaginal mucosa. Kim HC(1), Oh DS(1), Park JH(1), Kim HJ(1), Seo YB(1), Yoo HJ, Jan HS, Shin J, Kim CW, Kwon MS, Jin HT, Lee SK, Oh JE*, Lee HK*. Antiviral Research. 2020 May. (1) co-first authors

  • Contribution of Dendritic Cells in Protective Immunity Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Jung HE, Kim TH, Lee HK*. Viruses. 2020. Jan 15. 

  • Lee HK, Jung HE 2020. The Science & Technology 2020 June Vol. 613. 24-28 (월간 과학과기술 6월호, 2020년)

  • Lee HK, Jung HE 2020. 코로나 바이러스, 결국은 면역이다(하), [코로나19 과학 리포트]_Vol.9


  • Exogenous Interleukin-33 Contributes to Protective Immunity via Cyototoxi T-cell Priming against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection. Kim CW(1), Yoo HJ(1), Park JH, Oh JE, Lee HK*. Viruses. 2019. Sep 10. 

  • Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Contribute to the Production of IFN-β via TLR7-MyD88-Dependent Pathway and CTL Priming during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Kim TH(1), Oh DS(1), Jung HE, Chang J, Lee HK*. Viruses, 2019. Aug 8.

  • Autophagy protein ATG5 regulates CD36 expression and anti-tumor MHC class II antigen presentation in dendritic cells. Oh DS, Lee HK*. Autophagy. 2019. March 22. epub ahead of print

  • Sustained Type I Interferon Reinforces NK Cell-Mediated Cancer Immunosurveillance during Chronic Virus Infection. Oh JH, Kim MJ, Choi SJ, Ban YH, Lee HK, Shin EC, Lee KM*, Ha SJ*. Cancer Immunology Research. 2019. Feb. 26. Epub ahead of print

  • Interactions between Host Immunity and Skin-Colonizing Staphylococci: No Two Siblings Are Alike. Park YJ, Kim CW, Lee HK*. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2019 Feb. 7;20(3).pii:E718

  • Cell-Penetrating Mx1 Enhances Anti-Viral Resistance against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection.  Jung HE, Oh JE, Lee HK*. Viruses. 2019 Jan 28;11(2). Pii: E109.

  • Differential Role of Anti-Viral Sensing Pathway for the Production of Type I Interferon β in Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus A2 Strain Infection. Oh DS(1), Kim TH(1), Lee HK.* Viruses. 2019. Jan 15;11(1). Pii: E62.

  • Single mucosal vaccination targeting nucleoprotein provides broad protection against two lineages of influenza B virus. Kim MH, Kang JO, Kim JY, Jung HE, Lee HK, Chang J*. Antiviral Research. 2019 Jan 9;163:19-28.


  • Vibrio vulnificus quorum-sensing molecule cyclo (Phe-Pro) inhibits RIG-I-mediated antiviral innate immunity. Lee W, Lee SH, Kim M, Moon JS, Kim GW, Jung HG, Kim IH, Oh JE, Jung HE, Lee HK, Ku KB, Ahn DG, Kim SJ, Kim KS, Oh JW*. Nature Communications. 2018. Apr 23;9(1):1606

  • Reduced oxidative capacity in macrophages results in systemic insulin resistance. Jung SB, Choi MJ, Ryu D, Yi HS, Lee SE, Chang JY, Chung HK, Kim YK, Kang SG, Lee JH, Kim KS, Kim HJ, Kim CS, Lee CH, Williams RW, Kim H, Lee HK, Auwerx J, Shong M*. Nature Communications. 2018. Apr 19;9(1):1551

  • Sox7 promotes high-grade glioma by increasing VEGFR2-mediated vascular abnormality. Kim IK, Kim K, Lee E, Oh DS, Park CS, Park S, Yang JM, Kim JH, Kim HS, Shima DT, Kim JH, Hong SH, Cho YH, Kim YH, Park JB, Koh GY, Ju YS, Lee HK, Lee S, Kim I*. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2018. Mar 5;215(3):963-983

  • The Role of Skin and Orogenital Microbiota in Protective Immunity and Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease. Park YJ, Lee HK*. Frontiers in Immunology. 2018. Jan 10;8:8:1955


  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 mediates systemic glucose regulatory action of T helper type 2 cytokines. Lee SE, Kang SG, Choi MJ, Jung SB, Ryu MJ, Chung HK, Chang JY, Kim YK, Lee JH, Kim KS, Kim HJ, Lee HK, Yi HS, Shong M*. Diabetes. 2017 September 5, Epub ahead of print.

  • Transient Depletion of CD169+ Cells contributes to impaired protection and effector CD8+ T cell recruitment against mucosal respiratory syncytial virus infection. Oh DS, Oh JE, J HE, Lee HK*. Frontiers in Immunology. 2017 July 13;8:819

  • Intratumoral depletion of regulatory T cells using CD25-targeted photodynamic therapy in a mouse melanoma model induces antitumoral immune responses. Oh DS, Kim H, Oh JE, Jung HE, Lee YS, Park JH*, Lee HK*. Oncotarget. 2017. July 18;8(29):47440-47453. (*equally contributed)

  • A mechanism for the induction of type 2 immune responses by a protease allergen in the genital tract. Oh JE, Oh DS, J HE, Lee HK*. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2017 Jan 30. Ahead of print doi:10.1073/pnas.1612997114

  • Reconstruction of LPS Transfer Cascade Reveals Structural Determinants within LBP, CD14, and TLR4-MD2 for Efficient LPS Recognition and Transfer. Ryu JK, Kim SJ, Rah SH, Kang JI, Jung HE, Lee D, Lee HK, Lee JO, Park BS, Yoon TY, Kim HM*. Immunity. 2017 Jan 17. 46(1):38-50


  • Clusterin Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Attenuating CCL20-Mediated Dendritic Cell Recruitment. Hong GH, Kwon HS, Moon KA, Park SY, Park S, Lee KY, Ha EH, Kim TB, Moon HB, Lee HK, Cho YS*. Journal of Immunology 2016 Mar 1. 1;196(5):2021-30

  • Dysbiosis-induced IL-33 contributes to impaired antiviral immunity in the genital mucosa. Oh JE, Kim B, Chang DH, Kwon M, Lee SY, Kang D, Kim JY, Hwang I, Yu JW, Nakae N, Lee HK*. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2016 Feb 9;113(6):E762-71 (Introduced as highlight journal in “In This Issue” section of PNAS 2016 Feb 9;113(6))

  • OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production. Oh JE, Lee MS, Kim YJ, Lee HK*. Scientific Reports 2016 Jan. 11.


  • Defective mitochondrial fission augments NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Park S, Won JH, Hwang I, Hong S, Lee HK, Yu JW*. Scientific Reports 2015 Oct 22;5:15489. doi: 10.1038/srep15489

  • Faecalibaculum rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of a laboratory mouse. Chang DH, Rhee MS, Ahn S, Bang BH, Oh JE, Lee HK, Kim BC*. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2015 Sep 8[Epub ahead of print]

  • Caspase-1 independent viral clearance and adaptive immunity against mucosal respiratory syncytial virus infection. Shim YR, Lee HK*. Immune Network. 2015 Apr 15(2):73-82 Invited Review Article


  • Pattern recognition receptors and autophagy. Oh JE, Lee HK*. Frontiers in Immunology. 2014 Jun 25;5:300

  • Differential roles of lung dendritic cell subsets against respiratory virus infection. Kim TH, Lee HK*. Immune Network. 2014 Jun 14(3):128-137

  • T cell-intrinsic role of IL-6 signaling in primary and memory responses. Nish SA, Schenten D, Wunderlich FT, Pope SD, Gao Y, Hoshi N, Yu S, Yan X, Lee HK, Pasman L, Brodsky I, Yordy B, Zhao H, Bruning J, Medzhitov R*. Elife. 2014 May 19;3:e01949

  • Innate immune recognition of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Kim TH, Lee HK*. BMB Reports. 2014 Apr;47(4):184-191

  • Signaling through the adaptor molecule MyD88 in CD4+ T cells is required to overcome suppression by regulatory T cells. Schenten D, Nish SA, Yu S, Yan X, Lee HK, Brodsky I, Pasman L, Yordy B, Wuderlich FT, Bruning JC, Zhao H, Medzhitov R*. Immunity. 2014 Jan 16;40(1):78-90


  • Autophagy as an innate immune modulator. Ji Eun Oh and Heung Kyu Lee*. 2013. Immune Network. 2013 Feb;13(1):1-9

  • TAK1 regulates autophagic cell death by suppressing the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1. Shin JH, Min SH, Kim SJ, Kim YI, Park J, Lee HK*, Yoo OJ*. 2013. Scientific Reports. 2013 Mar 27;3:1561

  • New Paradigm of Dendritic Cell Science and application. Heung Kyu Lee, Yong Soo Bae. Oncoimmunology. 2013 Feb 1;2(2)


  • Modulation of pathogen recognition by autophagy. Ji Eun Oh and Heung Kyu Lee*. 2012. Frontiers in Immunology. 3:44. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00044

  • Autophagy in innate recognition of pathogens and adaptive immunity. Ji Eun Oh, Heung Kyu Lee*. 2012. Yonsei Medical Journal. 53(2):241-247


  • Adjuvant effect of bacterial outer membrane vesicles with penta-acylated lipopolysaccharide on antigen-specific T cell priming. Lee DH, Kim SH, Kang W, Choi YS, Lee SH, Lee SR, You S, Lee HK, Chang KT, Shin EC*. 2011. Vaccine. 26;29 (46):8293-301

  • The essential role of FKBP38 in regulating phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) protein stability. Choi MS, Min SH, Jung H, Lee JD, Lee HK*, Yoo OJ*. 2011. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 406, 305-309 (Co-corresponding)

  • Macrophage heterogeneity regulates renal injury and repair. Lee S, Nishio H, Nishio S, Choi BS, LEE HK, Cantley LG*. 2011. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 22 (2):317-326

​(~ 2010)

  • In vivo requirements for atg5 in antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Lee HK, Seinberg BE, Alberts P, Lee YH, Chervonsky A, Mizushima N, Grinstein S, Iwasaki A. 2010. Immunity 32 (2):227-239

  • Absence of autophagy results in reactive oxygen species-dependent amplification of RLR signaling. Tal MC, Sasai M, Lee HK, Yordy B, Shadel GS, Iwasaki A. 2009. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 2770-2775

  • Differential role of migratory and resident DCs in T cell priming after mucosal vs. skin HSV-1 infection. Lee HK, Zamora M, Linehan MM, Iijima N, Gonzales D, Haberman A, Iwasaki A. 2009. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 206, 359-370

  • The requirement of inflammasome in the generation of adaptive immunity against influenza virus infection.  Takeshi I, Lee HK, Ogura Y, Flavell RM, Iwasaki A. 2009. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 206, 79-87

  • Autophagy and antiviral immunity. Lee HK, Iwasaki A. 2008. Current Opinion in Immunology, 20(1):23-29.

  • The autophagy gene Atg5 plays an essential role in B lymphocyte development.  Miller BC, Zhao Z, Stephenson LM, Cadwell K, Pua HH, Lee HK, Mizushima NN, Iwasaki A, He YW, Swat W, Virgin HW. 2007. Autophagy, 24;4(3)

  • Inflammation directs a gradient of T-bet expression that specifies memory precursor and short- lived effector CD8 T cells.  Joshi NS, Cui W, Chandele A, Lee HK, Urso D, Hagman J, Gapin L, Kaech SM. 2007. Immunity 27:281-295

  • Autophagy-dependent viral recognition by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Lee HK, Lund JM, Ramanathan B, Mizushima N, Iwasaki A. 2007. Science 315:1398-401
    Introduced in Perspective: Reis e Sousa C. 2007. Eating in to avoid infection. Science 315:1376-7

  • Innate control of adaptive immunity: dendritic cells and beyond. Lee HK, Iwasaki A. 2007. Seminars in Immunology 19:48-55

  • Hassall’s corpuscles instruct dendritic cells to induce CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in human thymus. Watanabe N, Wang YH, Lee HK, Ito T, Wang YH, Cao W, Liu YJ. 2005. Nature 436:1181-5

  • Qualitatively Differential Regulation of T cell Activation and Apoptosis by T cell receptor zeta chain ITAMs and their Tyrosine residues. Chae WJ, Lee HK, Han JH, Kim SW, Bothwell AL, Morio T, Lee SK.  International Immunology. 2004, 16(9):1225-1236

  • Tautomycetin as a novel immunosuppressant in transplantation. Han DJ, Jeong YL, Wee YM, Lee AY, Lee HK, Ha JC, Lee SK, Kim SC. 2003. Transplantation Proceedings 35:547

  • Immunosuppressive effects of tautomycetin in vivo and in vitro via T cell-specific apoptosis induction.Shim JH*, Lee HK*, Chang EJ, Chae WJ, Han JH, Han DJ, Morio T, Yang JJ, Bothwell A, Lee SK. 2002. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10617-22 (equally contributed)

  • Immunosuppressive effects of tautomycetin on T cells, Lee HK, Cho KM, Chun HS, Son HJ, Lee SK. 1998. Korean J. Immunology 20, 2: 85-90.

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